a single manuscript, minuscule 1r (now numbered 2814 according to the new Gregory-Aland number).2 This manuscript, however, lacks the final verses of the book, and in order to have a complete text, Erasmus retranslated these verses into Greek from the Latin. Erasmus had only one Greek manuscript of Revelation when he compiled the text for his Novum Instrumentum (the official name of the first edition): GA 2814, which had been loaned to Erasmus by Johann Reuchlin. He also ignored much older and better manuscripts that were at his disposal. The story goes that a manuscript was quickly produced and given to Erasmus who reluctantly included it in his 3rd and subsequent editions. He called them the Hispanic Codex and the British Codex. Site Supporter . Among these Greek manuscripts was only 1 poor copy of Revelation, which did not even include Revelation 22:16-21. His was, in many ways, the first truly critical New Testament Greek text. The scholars who produced it boasted generally of the quality of their manuscripts but did not detail which copies they used, so modern scholars can only speculate which manuscripts were behind the Complutensian text. What did Erasmus contribute to the renaissance? Typographical errors, attributed to the rush to complete the work, abounded in the published text. If he did, did he make use of them? Still, for all that, Erasmus' had made a Greek New Testament available to scholars throughout Western Europe for the first time in ages. Theodore Beza was a Protestant scholar in Geneva who would ultimately become the successor to John Calvin. The translators of the New Testament of the KJV utilized a Greek textual tradition that is known today as the "Textus Receptus" (hereafter "TR") which is Latin for the "received text." While in England Erasmus began the systematic examination of manuscripts of the New Testament to prepare for a new edition and Latin translation. I have no reason to doubt that figure. Pinkeln im Stehen: Die Urinierhilfe für Frauen. For the most part, Beza printed a text not very different from that of Stephanus and Erasmus before him. De Jonge refuted it way back in 1980. If he did, did he make use of them? BACKGROUND This is how Tyndale, Coverdale, and the Geneva Bible read as well, following the TR. What manuscripts did Erasmus use? #1 TC, Oct 4, 2004. In so doing, Beza actually introduced a reading (which was then adopted into the KJV) which had never before existed in any manuscript. Erasmus used several Greek manuscript sources because he did not have access to a single complete manuscript. Thus, by his third edition, he had five copies of the Gospels, five of Acts, six of Paul's letters, four of the other New Testament letters, and two of Revelation. Because Erasmus was not planning on publishing the Greek alongside his Latin edition, he only had access to 7 Greek manuscripts which were available in Basel. A few things stand out from this information. Some believe that it was copied from a manuscript that did not include the Comma, which they claim was added from the Latin. He says: "Did Erasmus use other manuscripts beside these five in preparing his Textus Receptus? At the outset, I wish to thank Robert Paul Wieland for much of the information in this article and for his assistance with the Latin translations. Since he did not originally intend to publish a Greek text, he was forced to rely upon those available at Basel. THE MATERIALS. Dr. Edward Hills also comments on the usual accusation that Erasmus had only 6 Greek manuscripts to work from. One might say that the NIV uses an "older" Old Testament manuscript on occasion by deferring to the Septuagint or Dead Sea Scrolls (as explained below), but I am not sure this is significant. The king James Bible base text. Erasmus had access to most of the same set of manuscripts as did modern translators with the obvious exception of Codex Sinaiticus, which was not rescued from the trash can at St. Catherine's monastery until the mid-19th century. Erasmus famously only had 7 manuscripts on hand when he compiled the first edition of his "Novum Instrumentum omne". It is true that Erasmus had in his actual possession only a few Greek manuscripts when he composed the first edition of his Greek New Testament, but he had examined a large number of other manuscripts, both Latin and Greek, and he had compared these with many ancient Bible translations and with a large number of quotations from ancient church leaders. Beza, too, was conservative in making changes to the text, though he did make some particularly interesting edits. For his second edition (1519), Erasmus' gained access to Minuscule 33, a 9th Century copy of the New Testament that was nearly complete, though it lacked the entire book of Revelation and had some damage in the gospels. The manuscripts from which Stephanus drew to produce these notes were: Codex D (5th Century), Codex L (8th Century), Minuscules 8, 42, and 237 (11th century), 9, 38, 111, 120, 398, 2298, and 2817 (12th Century) 4 and 6 (13th century) and 5 (14th Century), and another 16th Century printed text known as the Complutensian Polyglot. Martin Luther relied on this version for his German translation of the Bible (1522) as Tyndale did for his English translation (1525). For example, the main manuscript that Erasmus used for the Gospels contained both the story of the woman taken in adultery in John and the last twelve verses of Mark, passages that did not originally form part of the Gospels. However, Erasmus by no means had access to all of the Greek manuscripts, so there was no way he could develop a true Majority Text. In 1492 Erasmus took his vows as a canon regular at Stein, in South Holland, and … Erasmus' did not have access to a complete manuscript of the entire New Testament, and he produced his text primarily by comparing the handful of partial manuscripts to one another to compile an eclectic text based on several different manuscripts. In some cases, such as John 5:3b-4, a scribe mistook an explanatory marginal comment for a correction­ and copied it into the text. Most of the manuscripts were, however, late Greek manuscripts of the Byzantine textual family and Erasmus used the oldest manuscript the least because "he was afraid of its supposedly erratic text." These variations include spelling, accents and breathing marks, word order and other minor differences. Machines, email, Federal Express, what manuscripts did erasmus use jets, etc regarding and. 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